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THE HISTORY OF MUSIC DANGDUT IN INDONESIA

Lagu-kumpulirik.----Dangdut is one of the genre of Indonesian music and traditional popular music that is partly derived from Hindustani music, Malay and Arabic. Dangdut is characterized by boom tabla and drum. Dangdut is also influenced by Indian music through Bollywood films by Ellya wage earner with Indian Dolls song, and the last born in 1968 dangdut Rhoma Irama with the main character. In the evolution to contemporary forms now in effect elements of Indian music (mainly from the use of tabla) and Arabic (the twisted and harmonization). Changes in the political currents Indonesia in the late 1960s opened the entry of the strong influence of western music with the inclusion of the use of electric guitar and is also a form of marketing. Since the 1970s dangdut arguably has matured into a contemporary form. As popular music, dangdut very open to the influence of other musical forms, ranging from kroncong, style, gamelan, harp, rock, pop, and even house music. (Id.wikipedia.org).


Dangdut trip in Indonesia

In 635 years, very many Arab merchants have emerged in Indonesia. Although their original purpose was to trade, they also slipped some knowledge about Islam which is also the beginning of the spread of Islam in Indonesia. Along with the development of Islam, the merchants of Arab also introduces Qasidah. Qasidah were originally introduced by Arab merchants strengthened by the emergence of merchants from Gujarat in the year 900 to the year 1200 and was followed by merchants from Persia in the year 1300 until the year 1600.


Dangdut Music History and Developments in Indonesia


In 1870, the dangdut music still continues to incubate with the inclusion of musical instruments named Lute trend of Arab origin. The musical instrument has the shape of a guitar, but his voice low. This instrument is entered along with the migration of Arabs to the clan of Hadramaut and the Egyptians after the opening of the Suez Canal and the construction of the port of Tanjung Priok in 1877 and currently Paketvaart Koninklijke Maatschappij (Shipping Company of the Kingdom) (KPM) in 1888. At that time, the musicians Arab use of stringed instruments as accompaniment when singing their music.

At the beginning of the 20th century, the song to the accompaniment of a stringed instrument became very popular among Arabic-Indonesian community. Seeing this stringed musical development, Syech Albar who was the father of musician Ahmad Albar decided to create an orchestra of stringed instruments, based in Surabaya. The success of a stringed instrument orchestra belongs Syech Albar took him recording with media and Columbia LPs were sold out very quickly in Singapore and Malaysia in 1930. One year later, the Deli Malay music emerged in North Sumatra in 1940 and initiated by Muhammad Mashabi along with Hussein Bawafie. The music continues to Jakarta and then evolved simultaneously with the formation of Malay Orchestra.


The flow of new music came back into Indonesia in 1950. The music brought by Edmundo Ros, Xavier Cugat, Perez Prado, and Los Panchos is a Latin American music which later became attached to the ears of Indonesia. At this time, the history of music dangdut again changed because the music is different from the Malay music that became a reference even though it still feels Malay style in it.

Actually fertilizers dangdut music has emerged since the inception of Malay Deli in 1940. This happened because some people like to experiment with streams of music that never existed in Indonesia such as the music of India. This development is also growing rapidly, driven by anti-Western politics are always triggered by Sukarno. The past record of big names such as LOTOS Said Effendi with his song, P. Ramlee of Malaya and Husein Bawafie which is one of the well-known songwriter.

In 1968 the end of dangdut music has finished brewing and began to surface. One of the key figures in the birth of dangdut is Rhoma Irama with Sonnet Group leader. Two years later began to appear the names that are still famous as Mansyur S., A. Rafiq, and Muchsin Alatas. In 1970 dangdut also become much more modern because Indonesian politics at that time began a friendly against cultures that were brought from the West as the electric guitar, percussion, saxophone and electric organ. New musical instruments that raises the possibility of variation for this dangdut music.


In the early 1970s was also the influence of rock music in the way the guitar to dangdut, so past it has also become a battlefield between rock dangdut. Because the war was also briefly held a concert "duel" God Bless against Sonnet Group. Those things are changing dangdut and separate them with Malay music overall. Around the late 1970s also emerged a new variation of dangdut, namely dangdut humor and driven by an orchestra named petromaks Ray Emission (PSP). PSP itself originated with Malay style deli to help the development of dangdut music that can be enjoyed by the students. Dangdut variation persists by Introduction Drink Poison (PMR) in the latter half of the 1980s and Pemuda Harapan Bangsa (PHB) in the 2000s.

By the time of 1990 began a new era again that dangdut music is heavily influenced traditional music is the rhythm of the gamelan is art musika sli Javanese culture then this period of dangdut music began to assimilate with the gamelan, which gave rise to new music genre called dangdut music camputsari or dangdut campursari. But this new music genre does not eliminate the existence of the original dangdut music at that time.


In the era of the 2000s along with the saturation of the original dangdut music, then at the beginning of this era musicians in East Java in coastal areas Pantura began to develop a new type of music dangdut music called Remix. Remix is ​​a mutation of the era dangdut dangdut music after campursari which grow thick traditional rhythms coupled with the inclusion of elements of the art of music drums kempul which is a musical art of Banyuwangi in East Java and other traditional rhythms like jaranan and gamelan.

In 2000, turned up another new variation that characterizes the history of music dangdut ie Remix. Only after 2002, these variations began to shake the world scene with his success perdangdutan initiated by pirated VCD's incredible. Remix pirated VCD cheapness has become an alternative entertainment for the community with a medium level of the economy when compared to the high price of vcd / dvd original artists of national belonging. Another thing that makes this famous dangdut is the phenomenon Inul to "shake ngebor" her especially after she began appearing on the screen Indonesia. With every new thing, of course arise where the pros and cons this time cons emerged from Rhoma Irama against Inul and rocking ngebornya because he believes can happen decadence. Despite all the controversy, dangdut as a variation can still be alive today.


As music's most popular and unique in Indonesia, dangdut experienced a colorful journey. Dangdut, whose name comes from the sound the typical drum, "dang" and "dut", considered a low form of popular culture in the 1970s, commercialized in the 1980s, interpreted again as a variety of pop music, national and global in the 1990s, and localized in the ethnic communities in the era of the 2000s. The book "Dangdut Stories: a social and musical history of Indonesia's most popular music" by Andrew N. Weintraub is the history of music and social about the genre of dangdut, in the wider sense of class, gender, ethnicity and nation in Indonesia's post-independence (1945 to date). Wearing a new interdisciplinary approach that combines ethnomusicology, anthropology of media and cultural studies, professor of music at the University of Pittsburgh, AmerikaSerikat, this link various aesthetic properties, use and effects of dangdut music, the material and social conditions in modern Indonesia. It contains treasures of original source material musicologist and new, in the form of interviews with the stars dangdut; information of journalistic resources pent; and in-depth analysis on the standards dangdut, combined with readings back edge on the literature that has been around make this book not only describes the portrait genre Indonesian music with the fans almost the majority of the population spread up to the outposts regions of the country, but also reflect dynamics of Indonesian society in transition.

source:
- Wikipedia.org
- www.portalsejarah.com
- www.pusbangkol.perpusnas.go.id
- Source Gambal Google.

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